Human Services Blueprint - Consultation Report


Right service | Right time | Right duration
© Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, May 2014Icon of pazzles
ISBN: 978-0-9752447-3-9

The Human Services Blueprint is an across Government and community sector project, endorsed by the ACT Government and informed by broader community engagement.

The Consultation Report is one of three documents in the Blueprint suite of documents.

The Human Services Blueprint Consultation Report should be read in conjunction with the Human Services Blueprint and Human Services Blueprint Technical Specifications.

Executive summary
Overview
What is the Blueprint?
Person-centred, strengths-based and simple
Community focused and collaborative
High quality, outcomes focused and sustainable
Designing the Blueprint
Collaboration and engagement
Leadership and commitment
Part of a process
Engagement Activities
Engagement outcomes
Towards One Human Services System discussion paper
Online survey
Intensive Design Workshop
Focus groups
Emerging themes from focus groups
Previous engagement theme
Children and young people
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Targeted engagement
Continued Engagement
Next steps
Appendix A: Consultation Themes
Appendix B: Key terms used in the Blueprint

Executive Summary

The Vision is that:

All Canberrans have the capability to fully participate in strong, healthy and inclusive communities and are enabled by a cohesive human services system that is:

The Human Services Blueprint (Blueprint) outlines key outcomes to demonstrate changes to achieve the vision: improved experiences for people who interact with the system, improved outcomes for people in the ACT, and more effective use of available resources.

The process to develop the Blueprint involved high-level ministerial endorsement and joint community-government leadership. Advice was developed by a group of community and government stakeholders whose shared ideas were tested and refined through broader community engagement.

Consultation and engagement undertaken to develop the Blueprint identified that people wanted better, equitable services that built on the strengths of existing programs, with less wait times and a more personal touch. Themes were generally very consistent with the same topics emerging throughout the various engagement activities. These themes are captured in the values and principles which will be used to guide decision making related to the ACT Human Services System (human services system).

The human services system aims to develop the capacity of people and communities to enable their full participation in a strong and healthy community. The Blueprint represents a redesign of the responses available to people and families, in situations where their resilience and capacity to participate in social and economic life, is challenged by vulnerability or adversity.

The human services system also intends to support people in appropriate ways - from providing a universal access model, to more targeted early intervention and prevention services, to an intensive service offer where required - and to do so in an integrated and cohesive way so that it is simple to understand, access and navigate.

The role of the human services system is to listen, learn and adapt to the changing needs of our community. The Blueprint puts forth a vision with plans to make progressive change.

The move towards a cohesive human services system will see a shift from crisis-focused responses to early responses that prevent crisis and further complexity. It will take an integrated and outcomes approach to deliver services that are person-centred and simple to understand. It will aim to increase resilience and be tailored to individuals. This requires services to work in alliance under the human services system.

Towards Progressive Change

From

 

To

Crisis focused responses

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Responding early

Preventing crisis

Fragmented and inefficient service delivery

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One system approach

Shared infrastructure

Focused on outcomes not inputs

Increasing vulnerability
and demand for services

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Increasing resiliency

Increasing early intervention and prevention to reduce demand for intensive service offers

Tailored service offers

Multiple reform efforts

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Alignment of reform efforts

Constrained resources

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Restructure service outputs and models to work within available resourcing arrangements

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Overview

Phase 1 of the Blueprint Project had endorsement by the ACT Government and was informed by broader community engagement. Engagement and consultation activities included an online survey, a discussion paper inviting public submissions, a two-day Intensive Design Workshop, and focus groups. Key findings from these activities are detailed thematically in this report and demonstrate how they shaped the design of the Human Services System Blueprint (Blueprint).

A common theme that quickly emerged was the need for more person-centred and respectful responses requiring a whole-of-government, joined-up approach between government and the community sector to deliver holistic and coordinated services. In particular, people wanted better, equitable services that built on the strengths of existing programs, with less wait times and a more personal touch.

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What is the Blueprint?

The Blueprint represents a redesign of the responses available to people and families, in situations where their resilience, and capacity to participate in social and economic life, is challenged by vulnerability or adversity.

The Blueprint recognises that experiences with the current model of service delivery could be improved. The Blueprint outlines plans to achieve a person-centred human services system that takes a whole-of-system approach to respond respectfully and effectively so that people may get the help they need, when they need it, to allow them to get on with their lives.

The Blueprint responds to a shared desire that people and communities are the central consideration in changes to the way we deliver services. The Blueprint takes a systems approach to enable responsive services now and into the future. This will be key to achieving positive outcomes for people and communities for generations to come.

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Person-centred, strengths-based and simple

The result of this design process was the development of a vision (with values and principles to guide decision making) and plans to realise that vision.

The Vision is that:

All Canberrans have the capability to fully participate in strong, healthy and inclusive communities and are enabled by a cohesive human services system that is:

To achieve the vision, the Blueprint articulates a purpose against which performance can be measured. The “Triple Aim” of the human services system is to simultaneously:

The Blueprint intends to build on the strengths of the current systems and to build capacity for progressive change to achieve a cohesive human services system that is person-centred and sustainable.

Further details on the Values and Principles that underpin the human services system can be found in the Technical Specifications document of the Blueprint suite of documents.

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Community focused and collaborative

The human services system has as its prime function the responsibility to develop the capacity of people and families to enable their full participation in a strong and healthy community.

Diagram - Human Services System

With people at the centre, the human services system includes the full spectrum of responses delivered by community, health, education and justice systems and provided by government, community sector, and for-profit partners. Community responses may, for example, include housing, disability, children, youth and family support as well as community infrastructure, such as transportation.

Each ‘system’ is dynamic, delivering responses that are independent of and interrelated to the human services system.

The Blueprint provides a framework for these systems to work in alliance as an integrated human services system to deliver person-centred responses. Under the human services system, each partner has a responsibility to align decision making with the vision and purpose of the human services system, and to respond as part of the human services system to build the capacity of people and communities. This includes having the capability to identify and connect people with the supports they need, when they need them.

Top High quality, outcomes focused and sustainable

The Blueprint is laid out in a series of plans that describe the key functions that the human services system needs to perform, the core structure to enable the functions, critical processes and the interactions between them.

Change to achieve a cohesive person-centred and sustainable human services system will not happen overnight. The Blueprint puts in place a framework to implement progressive change by identifying and understanding what needs to change to improve experiences and population outcomes and effective use of available resources. This includes identifying which initiatives already align under a human services system, what need to be redesigned, and where the system would benefit from initiatives being developed. This is called a Realisation Pathway. It takes an iterative, prototyping approach to inform scalable and sustainable system reform.

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Designing the Blueprint

Collaboration and engagement

The Blueprint project was sponsored by the Minister for Community Services with joint support from ministerial colleagues.

It was developed using a design process, which aimed to maximise opportunities for engagement and collaboration to ensure that ideas were tested and refined. The intent was to develop a shared understanding of the issues and draw together varied perspectives, valuing the diversity of experiences that make up the human services system - individuals who access supports, families who seek advice, people who provide services, officers who develop policy, and leaders who guide organisations. Participants at each stage contributed to the imagining of a preferred future - not limited by current realities - and allowed for rapid feedback on potential solutions.

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Leadership and commitment

To be effective, the design of the Blueprint required high-level commitment and leadership from across Government and the community sector. As such, a Human Services Taskforce, comprising government Directors-General and community sector leaders, was established to provide strategic oversight of the Blueprint and to advise government on how to achieve a cohesive human services system that is person-centred and sustainable.

A Core Design Team was established to develop advice for the Human Services Taskforce on the design of a Blueprint which details a vision, key principles and a decision framework to inform future business planning and investment strategies to achieve an integrated human services system. The Core Design Team comprised government and community sector representatives with a wide range of skills ranging from frontline workers to managers.

The Core Design Team’s advice was shaped by testing ideas and identifying themes and issues that emerged from the consultation and engagement processes. In addition, previous consultation and engagement reports were reviewed to identify themes.
This included reports that specifically targeted Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and children and young people - recognising these groups may have been
under-represented in the other activities.

Part of a process

The development of a Blueprint was an outcome of Phase 1 of four Blueprint project phases. Phases 2, 3 and 4 will involve further policy work to inform the progressive implementation, testing and refinement of a cohesive human services system.

Phase 1 ran from September to December 2013. It involved stakeholders from across government, the community sector and community.

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Engagement Activities

Many people took the time to share their thoughts and personal experiences about the human services system, through a variety of consultation and engagement activities.

Engagement activities included a discussion paper, Towards One Human Services System with you at the centre, public submissions, an online survey on the ACT Government Time to Talk website, focus groups with individuals and providers, a two-day Intensive Design Workshop, and additional targeted stakeholder engagements. Activities were promoted using newspaper advertising, paid social media (Facebook) advertising, media coverage and stakeholder briefings. These engagement and consultation activities were complementary, ensuring as many voices as possible were heard.

Having a complementary set of activities and voices was valuable. The focus groups, for example, identified what desirable experiences under a human services system should be like, while frontline practitioners and policy officers paid attention to how responses should be delivered to achieve positive outcomes and sustainability.

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Engagement outcomes

People wanted better, equitable, services that built on the strengths of existing programs, with less wait times and a more personal touch. These themes are captured in the values and principles which will be used to guide decision making related to the human services system.

The consultation identified a need for more person-centred and respectful responses requiring a whole-of-government, joined-up approach between government and the community sector. This initial feedback broadened the scope of the human services system, which was originally focused on services delivered by the Community Services Directorate, to include health, education, and justice sectors. This change ensured that being person-centred, which was an integral driver to develop the Blueprint, was not compromised. It also saw an important shift in how people saw the system - away from being focused on services towards one that sees people at the centre.

Themes were generally very consistent with the same topics emerging throughout the various engagement activities. For example, other themes that emerged from consultation and engagement included the importance of:

This report details each consultation and engagement activity and its key findings. Appendix A: Consultation Themes details how the themes from these activities align with the Blueprint.

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Towards One Human Services System discussion paper

On 31 October 2013, the Minister for Community Services released a public discussion paper to inform the development of the Blueprint, titled Towards One Human Services System with you at the centre. The discussion paper invited submissions by 29 November 2013.

A total of seven submissions were received in response to the discussion paper:

Themes raised in submissions included:

The Human Services Taskforce and Core Design Team were briefed on the content of submissions and, where permission was granted, submissions were made available online on the Community Services Directorate website.

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Online survey

An online survey was announced by the Minister for Community Services on 31 October 2013. By its closing on 29 November 2013, a total of 105 survey responses were received. The survey was hosted on the ACT Government Time to Talk website and the Blueprint page received 891 hits from 711 unique viewers.

The survey was promoted using Facebook advertising. This was a particularly successful promotional tool, reaching an audience of 46,326 people. Specific posts targeted recent parents, people with a disability and their carers, people of diverse backgrounds, people with an interest in affordable housing, people interested in family services and young people.

Key findings from survey respondents included:

It is important to note a potential bias in responses from the online survey. In particular, respondents had a strong preference to receive information via websites. This may not be the preference for all members of the community, particularly those who may not have access to or literacy in using online tools. This was further highlighted when service users who participated in focus groups noted that their access to internet was unreliable and they had a tendency to receive information via word-of-mouth.

The Human Services Taskforce and Core Design Team were briefed on the survey findings. Outcomes were also placed online on the Community Services Directorate and the ACT Government Time to Talk website. It was noted that some of the findings relating to a preference for online information may have resulted from the survey being offered exclusively online.

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Intensive Design Workshop

An Intensive Design Workshop was held on 2-3 December 2013. Forty-four representatives attended from the community sector and 48 representatives attended from ACT and Commonwealth government agencies.

The workshop was successful with good attendance and engagement. Some of the themes that emerged for discussion included:

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Focus groups

Between 10 and 17 December 2013, four focus groups were held across Canberra with service users and two focus groups were held with service providers. The aim was to test elements already identified for inclusion in the Blueprint, along with any gaps that may exist.

Service user focus groups were run by Northside Community Service, Kippax UnitingCare and Community Services Directorate with participants ranging from 18 to 89 years of age.

More than 40 men and women from a wide range of backgrounds were involved, including people with a disability, Aboriginal people, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, younger parents and older parents, single parents, parents who have contact with Care and Protection, people with mental health issues, people living in public and private housing, survivors of domestic violence, parents of children with complex health and disability support needs and women who have spent time in refuge accommodation.

A service user focus group was run by ACT Council of Social Service (ACTCOSS) - including representatives from consumer organisations and ACTCOSS associate members - and a service provider focus group was run by ACT Medicare Local with health care professionals including general practitioners, pharmacists and others.

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Emerging themes from focus groups

Many of the points raised expressed a need for system reform. For example:

It was also clear that many elements of the Blueprint developed so far are on the right track, for example people want:

The strongest theme to emerge in service user focus groups was their desire to receive good customer service, and that good customer services involves a “personal touch”. Comments included:

In terms of accessing information, most service users identified that they found out about services through word-of-mouth.

Key suggestions about effective information dissemination were to advertise through Centrelink (both informing Centrelink officers and posting information in Centrelink offices); TV and radio (especially for older people); internet; the Muslim women’s network; real estate agents; to supply an information pack as a part of a public housing lease pack; shopping centres; free Canberra magazines; and handing out pamphlets at the local shopping centre.

Service users were mixed about the use of internet for service delivery. Many did not have ready access to the internet - a point also raised by service providers in the ACT Medicare Local focus group.

While some service users were happy to be given information about other services they need in order to lead the follow up with these services, others emphasised a need to have a single point of contact, especially when their capacity is diminished and they are in crisis:

Service providers also expressed a desire for a single point of contact, particularly within the ACT Government for information about “who to go to when urgent connections are needed” for vulnerable clients.

There were also a range of other themes raised including:

The Human Services Taskforce and Core Design Team were briefed on the focus group findings.

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Previous engagement themes

In the initial design phases, the Blueprint project team reviewed six previous consultation and research reports conducted by ACT Government agencies to ensure the early work was informed by the “voices” of service users prior to the focus groups.

People consulted in these reports included children, young people, adults, families with complex support needs, people with disability and their carers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups, and service providers and their staff.

The main findings of the review were:

  1. That it is beneficial to develop a clear and shared vision for human services which:
    • Articulates the purpose of the human services system
    • Underpins all policies and services delivered
    • Is supported by government and the community to ensure a quality
      human services system.
  2. Development of principles that are shared and clearly communicated across government agencies and the community and that underpin the human services system is important.

Five key themes that emerged from the consultation and research reports reviewed were that a human services system should be based on the following principles:

This analysis work was shared with the Human Services Taskforce and Core Design Team.

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Children and young people

The Youth Coalition of the ACT was represented on the Human Services Taskforce and had a number of attendees at the Intensive Design Workshop.

A number of community engagement activities undertaken with children and young people by the ACT Children and Young People Commissioner were also reviewed. These were generally consultations about specific topics rather than discussions about human services or system reform, however, contained some useful findings for the Blueprint project. Consultations occurred in both Canberra and the Jervis Bay Territory.

Outcomes of about 30 consultations with more than 3000 children and young people were reviewed, and some relevant themes that emerged relating to human services included:

The ACT Children’s Plan 2010-2014 consultations were also reviewed. They highlighted the particular importance of family and home to young children, as well as having a say about their daily lives and their local community.

This analysis was used to inform the work of the Blueprint Project Team.

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

In 2011 the Census reported the ACT’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was 5,183 - representing about 1.5 per cent of the Territory’s total population.

The Blueprint project team engaged with the Community Services Directorate Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs at various points throughout the design process.

The ACT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Elected Body is a representative body established to provide direct advice to Government with the ambition of improving the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Canberrans, a step towards true reconciliation.

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Elected Body Strategic Plan 2012-17 was reviewed. The plan identifies four key priority areas including communication and engagement; representation and advocacy; focused policy and services; and capability and leadership building.

In relation to the focused policy and services priority area, the Elected Body highlights the importance of health, schooling, safe communities, governance and leadership, economic participation, healthy homes and early childhood.

It seeks to work with all ACT Government Directorates and agencies in this regard. The Elected Body has held various consultations with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Canberrans.

Relevantly, a consultation with Aboriginal women found that some priorities in human services included education, health (“long waiting lists for specialist treatments/surgery, women’s health and healing, mental health, dental”), affordable and safe housing, employment and career development, childcare, support for disengaged young people and role models for young people, services for mothers, care and protection, and safe communities.

The Project Team also reviewed What Works? A research-based policy approach to working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. This report was prepared for the ACT Community Inclusion Board in November 2007 by Professor Larissa Behrendt to identify the lessons learned about “best practice” in service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.

Some of the service system lessons identified included the need to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and people and understand their needs (cultural awareness was particularly important), promoting strong relationships between the client and the service, working collaboratively with other services (so clients can “go to one place and get everything they need”) and developing capacity within communities such as through professional development.

The Project Team will ensure work continues to occur with the Elected Body in the next phases of the Blueprint.

Targeted engagement

A range of targeted engagement activities also occurred through briefings and meetings with stakeholders including government agencies, community sector organisations and service providers and their staff.

Continued Engagement

Achieving a cohesive human services system that is person-centred and sustainable will take time and will require continued engagement from diverse perspectives. Continued collaboration and engagement will inform the future phases of the Blueprint project.

The values of the human services system that underpin any future work include being respectful and responsive. These mean that our approach to future engagement will: 1) value the unique contributions that diverse perspective bring to a vibrant community, and 2) listen, learn and adapt to the needs of people and communities.

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Next steps

The second phase of the Blueprint project will involve policy work to sequence key activities required to deliver this system, and will continue throughout 2014. The third phase will align and test key elements and activities required to deliver the system, and will occur in 2014 and 2015. The fourth and final phase will involve evaluation and embedding of the Human Services Blueprint across the ACT.

Future phases will continue to be developed in collaboration with the community, community sector and government agencies.

If you would like any further information on the Human Services Blueprint project or to be involved in future phases, please contact the Community Services Directorate at:

Strategic Policy
Community Services Directorate
GPO Box 158
Canberra ACT 2601
or: HumanServicesBlueprint@act.gov.au
www.communityservices.act.gov.au

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Appendix A: Consultation Themes

This appendix is a thematic representation of the outcomes from engagement and consultation activities carried out to design the Human Services System Blueprint. The matrix below details how the themes align with the Blueprint.

Consultation and engagement theme

Alignment with Human Services System Blueprint

A whole-of-government, joined-up approach between government and the community sector with holistic, coordinated services (including interface with transport).

Aligns. See for example, the description of the scope of the human services system on p20:

Within this context it is proposed we define the ‘Human Services System’ broadly, as it represents a better way of organising responses for people in the ACT. This is envisaged to include the full spectrum of services supported by community, health, education and justice systems, noting that each system is a dynamic and interrelated component of a broader human services system (p20).

The importance of building community capacity

Aligns. See for example, the description of the Human Services System Definition (p24), Purpose (p22) and Functions (pp27-30), in which the Blueprint states that one function of the human services system is focused on Community capacity:

The critical human services system functions are those that inform, enable and empower others to act. By developing the capacity of people, communities and agencies/organisations to build strengths and resilience and to respond early to emerging issues that affect participation, the system as a whole, may achieve better outcomes while leveraging its specialist skills and resources (p27).

Mutually respectful work across government and the community sector

Aligns. Respectful is one of five Values (shared beliefs that guide priorities and provide a framework for decision making) underpinning the human services system.

The System will respect people and communities in how it works by valuing the unique contributions that diverse perspectives bring to a vibrant community (p23).

Collaborative is one of eight key principles that guide daily decisions in the human services system.

People and communities, community services and government agencies work in partnership to build collective impact (p24).

A strengths-based
approach

Aligns. Strengths based is another of the eight key principles that guide daily decisions in the human services system.

Relationships and service responses empower individual and familial resilience, self-determination and independence (p24).

Choice for service users

Aligns in a range of ways. For example Person-centred is one of the eight key principles of the Blueprint:

Ensuring that people and families are at the centre of decision making (p24).

The process of blueprint design also employed Archetypal Life Journeys, which were examples of person-centred experiences used to guide the design of the Blueprint. These Journeys included people and families experiencing disabilities or illnesses (p15-17), which led to identification of the following system objective:

Support choice and control in the determination of options that will best suit the needs of individuals, carers and support networks (p17).

Better, equitable, services: with early intervention, less waits, a personal touch

Aligns. See for example the Human Services System Definition (p24-26) which states the goals of the human services system include:

Improve experiences for those interacting with the human services system, including access, quality, reliability and continuity

Improve capacity of individuals and families to participate fully in strong and healthy communities

Ensure effective use of available human and financial resources (p26).

Consideration of single information platforms/better information available about services (online as well as alternatives for people without reliable internet access)

Aligns. See, for example, the discussion around Structures (Leadership and Governance) (p33) which states leadership and governance should support alignment of procedures and shared information access points.

Pursuing and measuring outcomes

Aligns. Outcomes are a key component of the Blueprint architecture (see visual on p6).

These are described as:

...the results that emerge from the system, that if effective, will positively change both the context within which the system sits and the needs and expectations of those who have a stake in and/or interact with the system (p7).

Consideration of successful programs such as Strengthening Families and use of case studies

Aligns. See the discussion on Processes - control and coordination (p37-38) which notes the importance of:

Aligning and embedding work that has proven effective (e.g. Strengthening Families, Throughcare)

This work will be further progressed in Phase 2.

The Blueprint to be cost-effective, taking into account factors such as the impact of an ageing population and regional service demand, and including red tape reduction

Aligns. The Blueprint vision (p22) is to be:

Viable and sustainable, leveraging resources across the system to respond to current, emerging and future demand.

The Blueprint to be evidence-based and use clearly defined terms including clarity of scope and a clear and shared vision and principles for human services

Aligns.

See vision and purpose (p22) which states:

All Canberrans have the capability to fully participate in strong and healthy/inclusive communities and are enabled by a cohesive human services system that is:

  • Simple to understand, access and navigate
  • Strengths-based and focused on achieving positive, person-centred outcomes
  • Adaptive to evolving changes, needs and knowledge
  • Viable and sustainable, leveraging resources across the system to respond to current, emerging and future demand.

See also discussion on Structure - learning and development (p31) which states the importance of an evidence based approach:

... it is important that learning and development structures incorporate a focus on data collection and usage so that future needs are managed and risks are mitigated, developing the workforce including staff and volunteers, and supporting innovation.

In relation to clarity of scope, although most feedback received supported the broader scope and whole of government approach outlined in the Blueprint (see scope p20); it is noted that two discussion paper submissions sought a narrower scope excluding some health agencies. Work will continue with all relevant agencies to ensure ongoing communication and engagement about the Blueprint.

Importance of communication and engagement about the Blueprint

Aligns. This report describes communication and engagement to date. Ongoing communication and engagement work will be carried out in Phase 2.

The need to consider specific groups including (but not limited to) women, children, young people and those who care for them, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and people with a disability and their carers

Aligns. Following the consultation process “person-centred” is one of eight key principles of the Blueprint (p24) with the text stating this means:

Ensuring that people and families are at the centre of decision making

The archetypal life journeys (p15-17) highlight some examples of life journeys.

Providing support to families

Aligns. See root definition (p24-26) which states goals of the human services system include:

Develop the capability of individuals and families to participate fully in strong and healthy communities.

Recognition of staffing challenges such as recruitment and retention and valuing of volunteers

Aligns. See discussion on Structure - learning and development (p31) which states the importance of workforce:

... it is important that learning and development structures incorporate...developing the workforce including staff and volunteers.

Appendix B: Key terms used in the Blueprint

This section provides descriptions for key terms used throughout the Blueprint suite
of documents.

Person-centred

For the purpose of the Blueprint, person-centred refers to the need to ensure that the design and delivery of the human services system response, focuses on what matters to the person. In addition, it also means ensuring that the person is able to be involved, as a co-designer, of the services they need.

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Integrated

For the purpose of the Blueprint, the focus of integration is on organisational and process boundaries and how to ensure smooth handover across them. While there are many ways this can be achieved, the ultimate measure is that, for the service user, the boundaries are invisible and their experience is of ‘one service’.

Control

A key structural element discussed in this document is described as ‘control and coordination’. The word control is often used in the pejorative sense of one person, or organisation, exercising control over another. In this document ‘control’ does not simply mean top-down control. The structure described in this document is specifically designed to balance top-down authority, ensuring that what is intended to occur does in fact do so, with the autonomy of front-line staff and communities, who have a much richer understanding of what is required within their specific context. When control is effective, it balances the need for consistent, policy-driven practice with the innovation and flexibility needed to deliver effective person-centred services. Effective control is a balance of authority and autonomy.

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Community

For the purpose of the Blueprint, community is defined broadly as comprising locally based and interest based population groups, community based services, infrastructure and social capital, in recognition of the important role communities play in supporting individuals and families in the ACT.

Early Intervention and Prevention

Universal services, such as those available in health and education sectors, are building blocks for individuals to reach their potential. Prevention and early intervention approaches at key transition times throughout the life course - particularly in early childhood and early in the life of a problem - can increase the chances of positive outcomes.

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